Ergonomics Problems

No functioning of any transport system may be possible without a major involvement of a man in this process. In this case, man acts as a manager of transport processes and systems, provider, object of carriage operations (passenger transport systems), controller and, in some cases, an estimator. At the same time, even advanced transport processes are engineered and applied without proper consideration of a human factor, are not entirely based on both human work and life ergonomics. On the other hand, transport systems form the subsystem of a higher-hierarchy system of functioning of a city, region or territory. The latter, in turn, have the main mission of providing personal and social security for citizens. It is evident that people perform the functions of managers, providers and objects of carrying services. The issue of consideration of people’s interests in the course of transport system development is quite urgent.
The goal of this paper is to establish the laws of impact, which transport systems and their components have on functional conditions of people being a part of those systems, and, vice versa, the laws of influence of human factor (functional state of man) on parameters of functioning of transport systems, including their safety aspects.
To attain this goal, the following tasks are expected to be solved:
1. Analysis of methods of functional condition of a man being a part of the transport system.
2. Investigation of impact of data flows (advertising, cell phones, etc.) on functional conditions of drivers and pedestrians, their ability to take timely and adequate decisions. Dependence of the accident rate upon those factors.
3. Assessment of influence of transport processes on the functional condition of drivers in order to determine rational work and leisure conditions, assess the accident rate on those factors.
4. Development of recommendations for improvement of transport traffic conditions with a view to decreasing the accidence (the rate of accidents).
5. Development of recommendations for organization of cargo and passenger carriage processes with the consideration of the driver’s health condition.
6. Modeling the parameters of travel of special-purpose cars to the places of emergency situations with the consideration of the driver’s health condition.
7. Development of concepts for selection of rational traffic routes and conditions of travel of special transport facilities to the places of emergency situations within the automated system of operative management of special-purpose services.
8. Modeling the parameters of travel of transport facilities along their lines with the consideration of the driver’s health condition.
Unlike the existing scientific theories of study of transport system functioning laws, the main theoretical premises are based on the suggestion that the major importance should be attached to the human factor as the one assessing the aspects of ergonomics, sociality, safety and efficiency of transport processes in the course of carriage of cargoes and passengers, as well as management of traffic and regulation of transport flows.
In this case, a special value is attached to the methods of estimation of perception of process management conditions in transport systems by parties to the transport process (driver, passenger).
The perception can be estimated by the following principal methods:
— electrocardiogram records;
— electroencephalogram records;
— psycho-emotional control.