Different-Type Transport Traffic Management
Traffic management is a system of engineering and organizational measures taken within the existing street network to ensure safety and adequate speed of transport and pedestrian streams.
In the last few years the problem of growing number of urban motor vehicles has become still more critical in our country. Such a situation results in deterioration of environmental conditions, heavy traffic jams, loss of time in the transport driving process. As the traffic management measures are implemented, great importance is attached to the introduction of such technical facilities as traffic signs and road marking, traffic lights control, road safety fences and guides.
Negative impact of a larger quantity of motor vehicles can be tempered through the use of long-term experience in proper urban planning and managing transport stream traffic. This will permit to improve materially the condition of traffic and increase transport speed within city limits.
In the course of the development of specific measures to improve traffic conditions, the most critical tasks are to provide adequate traffic capacity, convenience and safety of urban traffic.
Traffic capacity is one of the most important criteria used to assess the quality of operation of communication lines. Road traffic capacity is the maximum number of motor vehicles that can pass through a certain road stretch during a certain period of time, the adequate speed and traffic safety being provided.
Traffic capacity in multilane streets may not be understood as the arithmetical sum of each lane capacity, which can be explained by the need to maneuver when changing a traffic lane, making turns at crossroads, stop stations, etc.
Described in the second chapter in respect of each transport network zone are such traffic characteristics as traffic intensity in physical units, traffic intensity in reduced units, transport stream speed, level of road traffic loading, traffic stream density.
All calculated values of traffic characteristics should be entered in the summary table.
The pattern of arrangement of stops for municipal passenger transport (MPT) within the transport network will be pictured in the third chapter.
Proper arrangement of stop stations promotes traffic safety and road capacity. To arrange stop stations in the proper manner, the following requirements should be taken into account:
— safety of pedestrian movement;
— minimum delays in movement of transport facilities;
— minimum time required by passengers to reach stop stations.
The practice of MPT traffic management proves that the distance between stop stations should be 400-600 m in respect of normal routes and 800-1200 m in respect of express routes. Besides, housing along network zones should be taken into account.
The MPT stop stations can be located either before or after crossroads. It is more acceptable for bus and trolleybus stops to be arranged after crossroads.
The fourth chapter will be addressed to the issue of calculation of the following parameters with regard to each MPT route: turn-around travel time, interval and intensity of traffic of transport facilities, speed of communication.
The MPT route traffic characteristics should be entered in the summary table.
The fifth chapter should consider advisability of arranging a separate MPT traffic lane in every zone of the transport network. Such an arrangement should be based on the following criteria:
1. The road must have at least three lanes of single-direction traffic.
2. Before a separate MPT lane is arranged, the average intensity of transport stream traffic should be at least 400 motor vehicles / hour per one traffic lane.
3. After a separate MPT lane is arranged, the average intensity of transport stream traffic should not exceed 900 motor vehicles / hour per one lane.
All data as to compliance with MPT traffic priority conditions and length of stops should be entered in the summary table.
This term paper has assessed the traffic characteristics, basing on the information about the current transport network conditions and traffic intensity in the city streets, with the use of the Department software facilities.